All References

Below is a list of all of the research and information sources. You can filter the list by clicking on ‘Filter Reference’ and refining by WDNA Priority, geographical location and/or keywords.

If you are aware of a piece of research and/or report that is not listed and should be included in the list, please contact us. If you are interested in a particular WDNA priority, visit the specific list for each one:

A deer population and habitat-impact assessment of the Monadhliath SAC, Inverness-shire, UK

A discussion on the history, present status and future conservation of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Scotland

A draft definition of competence (e.g. in terms of welfare, public safety and food safety) including the scope, standard and measure required

A genetic study of sika (Cervus nippon) in the New Forest and in the Purbeck region, southern England: is there evidence of recent or past hybridization with red deer (Cervus elaphus)?

A Guide to Upland Habitats, Surveying Land Management Impacts. Volume 1 - Background Information and Guidance for Surveyors

A Guide to Upland Habitats, Surveying Land Management Impacts. Volume 2 - The Field Guide

A Highland Deer Herd and its Habitat

A nutritional explanation for body-size patterns of ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores

A report on a review of females culled in close season

A report on current perception, legal status and expectation with respect to deer welfare in other countries

A report on limitations of data currently collected

A report on the current perception, legal status and expectations with regard to wild deer welfare in Scotland

A report on the data requirements of a unified system

A report on the limitations and costs of current methods to assess competence

A report on the seminar for recreational hunters in Scotland, with some comments on deer management

A review of available data on natural motality of red and roe deer populations

A Review of Damage by Mammals in North Temperate Forests .3. Impact on Trees and Forests

A review of different options available for collecting and reporting cull data

A review of options used to assess competence in other countries

A review of systems used to monitor competence in other countries

A review of systems, based on new and existing ideas, which could be used to monitor in Scotland

A study of the relations between roe, red and fallow deer, with special reference to Drummond Hill Forest, Scotland

A woodland profile survey and assessment of herbivore impacts for Ben Hope SSSI

Acceptance of deer management strategies by suburban homeowners and bowhunters

Achieving landscape-scale deer management for biodiversity conservation: The need to consider sources and sinks

Age Criteria and Life Expectancy of Roe Deer (Capreolus-Capreolus) in Coniferous Forest in Northeastern England

Agenda-setting and power in collaborative natural resource management

Alternative Mating Strategies and Reproductive Success in Fallow Deer

Altitudinal patterns of tick and host abundance: a potential role for climate change in regulating tick-borne diseases?

An analysis of the impact on the natural heritage of the decline in hill farming in Scotland

An application of economic choice experiments to a traditional land use—deer hunting and landscape change in the Scottish Highlands

An assessment and evaluation of herbivore impacts on blanket bog in part of Caithness and Sutherland peatlands Special Area of Conservation.

An assessment and evaluation of herbivore impacts on the designated upland habitats within the Drumochter Hills Special Area of Conservation

An assessment of herbivore impacts on notified upland habitats within Ben Vorlich Site of Special Scientific Interest

An assessment of herbivore impacts on subalpine wet heath within Ben Vorlich Site of Special Scientific Interest

An estimate of numbers of deer shot that do not go through game dealers (‘domestic consumption’)

Analysis of cost of preventing establishment in Scotland of muntjac deer (Muntiacus spp.)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a multi-species deer community in the New Forest, England

Applying wildllife welfare principles to individual animals

Assessing deer densities and impacts at the appropriate level for management: a review of methodologies for use beyond the site scale

Assessing Herbivore Impact in Woodlands: A Subjective Method

Assessment of bird collisions with deer fences in Scottish forests

Assessment of herbivore impacts on designated upland habitats on Ben Hope SSSI

Assessments of grazing and trampling impacts on upland habitats in the Cairngorms Core Area 1995-2000

Attitudes of urban and suburban residents in Indiana on deer management

Bargaining Over Common Property Resources: Applying the Coase Theorem to Red Deer in the Scottish Highlands

Bark Stripping Damage by Red Deer in A Sitka Spruce Forest in Western Scotland .1. Incidence

Bark Stripping Damage by Red Deer in A Sitka Spruce Forest in Western Scotland .2. Wound Size and Position

Bark stripping damage by red deer in a Sitka spruce forest in western Scotland .3. Trends in wound condition

Bark-striping damage by red deer in a Sitka spruce forest in western Scotland: IV. Survival and performance of wounded trees

British Columbia urban ungulate conflict analysis

Browsing by deer on naturally regenerating Scots pine (Pines sylvestris L.) and its effects on sapling growth

Browsing by fallow deer (Dama dama) in young broadleaved plantations: seasonality, and the effects of previous browsing and bud eruption

Browsing by red deer negatively impacts on soil nitrogen availability in regenerating native forest

Browsing by red deer on naturally regenerated birch and juniper saplings on wintering ground at Glen Feshie

Can Economic Incentives Resolve Conservation Conflict: The Case of Wild Deer Management and Habitat Conservation in the Scottish Highlands

Can gap creation by red deer enhance the establishment of birch (Betula pubescens)? Experimental results within Calluna- and Molinia-dominated vegetation at Creag Meagaidh

Can managers inform models? Integrating local knowledge into models of red deer habitat use

Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems: do browsing and grazing herbivores matter?

Changes in the field-layer of Wytham Woods - assessment of the impacts of a range of environmental factors controlling change

Characteristics of lowland broadleaved woodland being restocked by natural regeneration

Choice and development of decision support tools for the sustainable management of deer-forest systems

Collaboration for community-based wildlife management

Collaboration in natural resource governance: Reconciling stakeholder expectations in deer management in Scotland

Collaborative Frameworks in Land Management: A Case Study on Integrated Deer Management

Collaborative Frameworks in Land Management: A Case Study on Integrated Deer Management (website)

Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Common Standards Monitoring guidance for upland habitats

Community-based deer management: a practitioners' guide

Community-based suburban deer management: six case studies of issue evolution, capacity and intervention

Community-based wildlife management: a case study of Sika deer in Japan

Comparative feeding ecology of red (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Scottish plantation forests

Comparing the precision and cost-effectiveness of faecal pellet group count methods

Comparison of effects of different methods of culling red deer (Cervus elaphus) by shooting on behaviour and post mortem measurements of blood chemistry, muscle glycogen and carcase characteristics

Comparison of four methods to reduce white-tailed deer abundance in an urban community

Comparison of the lethality of lead and copper bullets in deer control operations to reduce incidental lead poisoning; field trials in England and Scotland

Conifer leader browsing by roe deer in English upland forests: Effects of deer density and understorey vegetation

Conservation with a Gun: Understanding Landowner Attitudes to Deer Hunting in the Scottish Highlands

Consumptive and non-consumptive values of wild mammals in Britain

Contrary seasonal changes of rates of nutrient uptake, organ mass, and voluntary food intake in red deer

Control of wildlife in woodland in southwest England

Controlling urban deer

Correlations of red (Cervus elaphus) and roe (Capreolus capreolus) deer densities in Scottish forests with environmental variables

Costs of sika control in native woodland: Experience at Scaniport Estate

Current and future deer management options. Report on behalf of DEFRA European Wildlife Division

Damage by deer to agriculture and forestry

Damage to saplings by red deer (Cervus elaphus): effect of foliage height and structure

Deer abundance estimation at landscape-scales in heterogeneous forests

Deer and livestock impacts on native woodlands in Scotland re-visited

Deer and road traffic accidents: A review of mitigation measures: Costs and cost-effectiveness

Deer fencing and forestry

Deer hunting in a residential community: the community's perspective

Deer management and tree regeneration in the RSPB Reserve at Abernethy Forest

Deer management on the National Forest Estate: current practices and future directions 1 April 2014 - 31 March 2017

Deer management within suburban areas

Deer Reduce Habitat Quality for A Woodland Songbird: Evidence from Settlement Patterns, Demographic Parameters, and Body Condition

Deer vehicle collisions in Britain - A nationwide issue

Deer vehicle collisions in Scotland Monitoring project 2008-2011

Deer-vehicle collisions, deer density and land use in Iowa's urban deer herd management zones

Deer/elk management actions in suburban environments: what will stakeholders accept?

Demographic changes in a Scottish red deer population (Cervus elaphus L.) in response to sustained and heavy culling: an analysis of trends in deer populations of Creagh Meagaidh National Nature Reserve 1986-2001

Determinants of deer impact in European forests – A systematic literature analysis

Determining the risk of Pinewood deterioration based on tree size (DBH), structure and regeneration density data

Developing guidance for managing extensive upland grazing where habitats have differing requirements

Developing methodologies for monitoring deer impacts in the wider countryside: initial scoping study

Diet of British Sika Deer in Contrasting Environments

Diet selection by grazing animals

Dietary differences between male and female fallow deer in sympatry and in allopatry

Dimensions of capacity in community-based suburban deer management: the managers' perspective

Distribution and habitat selection by muntjac and other species of deer in a coniferous forest

Ecological factors influencing sexual segregation and group size in fallow deer (Dama dama)

Ecological impacts of deer overabundance

Ecological impacts of increasing numbers of deer in British woodlands

Ecology of Red Deer: A research review relevant to their management in Scotland

Economic impacts of wild deer in the East of England

Economics of an urban deer-removal program

Ecosystem and competition impacts of introduced deer

Effect of increasing numbers of deer on bird populations in Wytham Woods, central England

Effectiveness of wildlife warning reflectors in reducing deer-vehicle collisions: a behavioural study

Effects of deer in a woodland restoration enclosure

Effects of excluding wild herbivores on the growth of small saplings in some woodlands within the Breadalbane and Loch Lomond Environmentally Sensitive Areas

Effects of Grazing by Mountain Hares and Red Deer on the Production and Chemical-Composition of Heather

Effects of human disturbance on the diet composition of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Effects of large native herbivores on other animals

Effects of red deer exclusion on the corticolous and terricolous cryptogam community of Atlantic woodland

Efficacy of Olfactory Repellents on the Aversive Behaviour of Captive Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Based on Field Experiments in Scotland

Emergence of cooperative behaviours in the management of mobile ecological resources

Environmental and Strategic Uncertainty in Common Property Management: The Case of Scottish Red Deer

Environmental determinants of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in Scotland

Escalating ecological impacts of deer in lowland woodland

Establishing trees without fences in Scotland

Estimating abundance of introduced Chinese Muntjac Muntiacus reevesi and native Roe deer Capreolus capreolus using portable thermal imaging

Estimating deer abundance from line transect surveys of dung: sika deer in southern Scotland

Estimating national trends and regional differences in red deer density on open-hill ground in Scotland: identifying the causes of change and consequences for upland habitats

Estimating red deer Cervus elaphus populations: an analysis of variation and cost-effectiveness of counting

Estimation of Fallow Deer (Dama dama) populations from faecal accumulation

Evidence that climate change has caused 'emergence' of tick-borne diseases in Europe

Evolution of population genetic structure of the British roe deer by natural and anthropogenic processes (Capreolus capreolus)

Exclusion of deer affects responses of birds to woodland regeneration in winter and summer

Exmoor's other deer: current status of Fallow, Sika, Roe and Muntjac within Exmoor National Park and surrounding areas

Factors Affecting Calf Mortality in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)

Factors affecting forage intake by range ruminants: a review.

Factors Affecting Severity of Deer Browsing Damage Within Coppiced Woodlands in the South of England

Factors Associated with Shooting Accuracy and Wounding Rate of Four Managed Wild Deer Species in the UK, Based on Anonymous Field Records from Deer Stalkers

Factors influencing browsing by fallow deer Dama dama in young broad-leaved plantations

Farming for venison - investigating the barriers to deer farming in Scotland

Field evidence that roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are a natural host for Ehrlichia phagocytophila

Fifteen years of urban deer management: The Fontenelle Forest experience

Foraging behaviour of sheep and red deer within natural heather/grass mosaics

Foraging by roe deer in agricultural areas and impact on arable crops

Forest restoration and browsing impact by roe deer

Framework for assessing the susceptibility of management areas to deer impacts

From deer problem to people solution: a case study from Montgomery County, Maryland

Game and wildlife management skills: Scotland

Gender and ethical judgements about suburban deer management

Geographical variation in the density of grazing mammals on montane sites in the Highlands of Scotland

Getting the biggest birch for the bang: restoring and expanding upland birchwoods in the Scottish Highlands by managing red deer

Global climate change and phenotypic variation among red deer cohorts

Habitat monitoring in the wider countryside: A case study on the pursuit of innovation in red deer management

Habitat selection by sympatric muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a lowland commercial pine forest

Habitat usage by red (cervus-elaphus) and roe (capreolus-capreolus) deer in a Scottish sitka spruce plantation

Habitat use by Red deer Cervus elaphus L. and hill sheep in the West Highlands

Heat exchanges and energy balances of grazing animals

Heather utilisation along paths by red deer and sheep in a natural heather/grass mosaic

Herbivore impact assessment of the Torridon Forest SSSI

Herbivore impact on grassland plant diversity

How attitudes are shaped: controversies surrounding red deer management in a national park

How browsing by red deer impacts on litter decomposition in a native regenerating woodland in the Highlands of Scotland

How dear are deer volunteers: the efficiency of monitoring deer using teams of volunteers to conduct pellet group counts

How does climate change influence demographic processes of widespread species

How Many Deer? A guide to estimating deer population size

Hunting in European mountain systems: an economic assessment of game gross margins in nine case study areas

Identifying conflicts and opportunities for collaboration in the management of a wildlife resource: a mixed-methods approach

Identifying threshold densities for wild deer in the UK above which negative impacts may occur

Impact of deer in lowland Britain on agriculture, forestry and conservation habitats

Impact of herbivory by red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) on patterns and processes in subalpine grasslands in the Swiss National Park

Impact of muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) at Monks Wood National Nature Reserve, Cambridgeshire, eastern England

Impact of Muntjac Deer Muntiacus-Reevesi on Egg-Laying Sites of the White Admiral Butterfly Ladoga-Camilla in A Cambridgeshire Wood

Impact of red deer on a Scots pine plantation after removal of deer fencing

Impact of roe deer Capreolus capreolus browsing on understorey vegetation in small farm woodlands

Impacts of deer herbivory on ground vegetation at Wytham Woods, central England

Impacts of deer herbivory on ground vegetation at Wytham Woods, central England

Impacts of livestock in regenerating upland birch woodlands in Scotland

Impacts of wild ungulates on vegetation: costs and benefits

Impacts of woodland deer on small mammal ecology

Importance of climatological downscaling and plant phenology for red deer in heterogeneous landscapes

Incentivising the collaborative management of mobile ecological resources

Incisor arcade structure and diet selection in ruminants

Indicators of ecological change: new tools for managing populations of large herbivores

Influence of anthropogenic disturbances on activity, behaviour and heart rate of roe deer (Capreolus Capreolus) and red deer (Cervus Elaphus), in context of their daily and yearly patterns.

Influence of landscape factors on density of suburban white-tailed deer

Influences of deer browsing, coppice history, and standard trees on the growth and development of vegetation structure in coppiced woods in lowland England

Interactions between ecological and social drivers in determining and managing biodiversity impacts of deer

Interactions between forests and herbivores: the role of controlled grazing experiments

Intervention and capacity considerations in community-based deer management: the stakeholders' perspective

Introgression of exotic Cervus (nippon and canadensis) into red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations in Scotland and the English Lake District

Is legislation a barrier to the sustainable management of game species? A case study of wild deer in Britain

Killing animals for recreation? A quantitative study of hunters' motives and their perceived moral relevance

Land Use Change on Scottish Highland Estates

Landscape features affect gene flow of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Landscape-scale vegetation patterns influence small-scale grazing impacts

Leader browsing by red and roe deer on young sitka spruce trees in western Scotland .1. Damage rates and the influence of habitat factors

Leader Browsing by Red and Roe Deer on Young Sitka Spruce Trees in Western Scotland .2. Effects on Growth and Tree Form

Legislation close season shooting

Liability of saplings to browsing on a red deer range in the Scottish Highlands

Life cycle assessment of Scottish wild venison

Long term density dependent changes in habitat selection in red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Long term effects of deer browsing and trampling on the vegetation of peatlands

Long-term change and implications for the management of woodpastures: experience over 40 years from Denny Wood, New Forest

Long-term effects of leader browsing by deer on the growth of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)

Mammalian herbivores as potential seed dispersal vectors in ancient woodland fragments

Management of deer in woodlands - literature review of decision making and report on decision modelling workshop