Healthy Ecosystems

Below is a list of research and information sources relevant to WDNA Priority 2: Healthy Ecosystems. You can filter the list by clicking on ‘Filter References’ and refining by geographical location and/or keywords.

If you are aware of a piece of research and/or report that is not listed and should be included in the list, please contact us.

A deer population and habitat-impact assessment of the Monadhliath SAC, Inverness-shire, UK

A discussion on the history, present status and future conservation of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Scotland

A genetic study of sika (Cervus nippon) in the New Forest and in the Purbeck region, southern England: is there evidence of recent or past hybridization with red deer (Cervus elaphus)?

A Guide to Upland Habitats, Surveying Land Management Impacts. Volume 1 - Background Information and Guidance for Surveyors

A Guide to Upland Habitats, Surveying Land Management Impacts. Volume 2 - The Field Guide

A Highland Deer Herd and its Habitat

A nutritional explanation for body-size patterns of ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores

A report on the seminar for recreational hunters in Scotland, with some comments on deer management

A Review of Damage by Mammals in North Temperate Forests .3. Impact on Trees and Forests

A study of the relations between roe, red and fallow deer, with special reference to Drummond Hill Forest, Scotland

A woodland profile survey and assessment of herbivore impacts for Ben Hope SSSI

Achieving landscape-scale deer management for biodiversity conservation: The need to consider sources and sinks

Age Criteria and Life Expectancy of Roe Deer (Capreolus-Capreolus) in Coniferous Forest in Northeastern England

Alternative Mating Strategies and Reproductive Success in Fallow Deer

Altitudinal patterns of tick and host abundance: a potential role for climate change in regulating tick-borne diseases?

An analysis of the impact on the natural heritage of the decline in hill farming in Scotland

An assessment and evaluation of herbivore impacts on blanket bog in part of Caithness and Sutherland peatlands Special Area of Conservation.

An assessment and evaluation of herbivore impacts on the designated upland habitats within the Drumochter Hills Special Area of Conservation

An assessment of herbivore impacts on notified upland habitats within Ben Vorlich Site of Special Scientific Interest

An assessment of herbivore impacts on subalpine wet heath within Ben Vorlich Site of Special Scientific Interest

Analysis of cost of preventing establishment in Scotland of muntjac deer (Muntiacus spp.)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a multi-species deer community in the New Forest, England

Assessing deer densities and impacts at the appropriate level for management: a review of methodologies for use beyond the site scale

Assessing Herbivore Impact in Woodlands: A Subjective Method

Assessment of bird collisions with deer fences in Scottish forests

Assessment of herbivore impacts on designated upland habitats on Ben Hope SSSI

Assessments of grazing and trampling impacts on upland habitats in the Cairngorms Core Area 1995-2000

Bargaining Over Common Property Resources: Applying the Coase Theorem to Red Deer in the Scottish Highlands

Bark Stripping Damage by Red Deer in A Sitka Spruce Forest in Western Scotland .1. Incidence

Bark Stripping Damage by Red Deer in A Sitka Spruce Forest in Western Scotland .2. Wound Size and Position

Bark stripping damage by red deer in a Sitka spruce forest in western Scotland .3. Trends in wound condition

Bark-striping damage by red deer in a Sitka spruce forest in western Scotland: IV. Survival and performance of wounded trees

Browsing by deer on naturally regenerating Scots pine (Pines sylvestris L.) and its effects on sapling growth

Browsing by fallow deer (Dama dama) in young broadleaved plantations: seasonality, and the effects of previous browsing and bud eruption

Browsing by red deer negatively impacts on soil nitrogen availability in regenerating native forest

Browsing by red deer on naturally regenerated birch and juniper saplings on wintering ground at Glen Feshie

Can gap creation by red deer enhance the establishment of birch (Betula pubescens)? Experimental results within Calluna- and Molinia-dominated vegetation at Creag Meagaidh

Can managers inform models? Integrating local knowledge into models of red deer habitat use

Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems: do browsing and grazing herbivores matter?

Changes in the field-layer of Wytham Woods - assessment of the impacts of a range of environmental factors controlling change

Characteristics of lowland broadleaved woodland being restocked by natural regeneration

Choice and development of decision support tools for the sustainable management of deer-forest systems

Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Common Standards Monitoring guidance for upland habitats

Comparative feeding ecology of red (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Scottish plantation forests

Comparing the precision and cost-effectiveness of faecal pellet group count methods

Conifer leader browsing by roe deer in English upland forests: Effects of deer density and understorey vegetation

Control of wildlife in woodland in southwest England

Correlations of red (Cervus elaphus) and roe (Capreolus capreolus) deer densities in Scottish forests with environmental variables

Costs of sika control in native woodland: Experience at Scaniport Estate

Current and future deer management options. Report on behalf of DEFRA European Wildlife Division

Damage by deer to agriculture and forestry

Damage to saplings by red deer (Cervus elaphus): effect of foliage height and structure

Deer abundance estimation at landscape-scales in heterogeneous forests

Deer and livestock impacts on native woodlands in Scotland re-visited

Deer fencing and forestry

Deer management and tree regeneration in the RSPB Reserve at Abernethy Forest

Deer Reduce Habitat Quality for A Woodland Songbird: Evidence from Settlement Patterns, Demographic Parameters, and Body Condition

Demographic changes in a Scottish red deer population (Cervus elaphus L.) in response to sustained and heavy culling: an analysis of trends in deer populations of Creagh Meagaidh National Nature Reserve 1986-2001

Determinants of deer impact in European forests – A systematic literature analysis

Determining the risk of Pinewood deterioration based on tree size (DBH), structure and regeneration density data

Developing guidance for managing extensive upland grazing where habitats have differing requirements

Developing methodologies for monitoring deer impacts in the wider countryside: initial scoping study

Diet of British Sika Deer in Contrasting Environments

Diet selection by grazing animals

Dietary differences between male and female fallow deer in sympatry and in allopatry

Distribution and habitat selection by muntjac and other species of deer in a coniferous forest

Ecological factors influencing sexual segregation and group size in fallow deer (Dama dama)

Ecological impacts of deer overabundance

Ecological impacts of increasing numbers of deer in British woodlands

Ecology of Red Deer: A research review relevant to their management in Scotland

Economic impacts of wild deer in the East of England

Ecosystem and competition impacts of introduced deer

Effect of increasing numbers of deer on bird populations in Wytham Woods, central England

Effects of deer in a woodland restoration enclosure

Effects of excluding wild herbivores on the growth of small saplings in some woodlands within the Breadalbane and Loch Lomond Environmentally Sensitive Areas

Effects of Grazing by Mountain Hares and Red Deer on the Production and Chemical-Composition of Heather

Effects of human disturbance on the diet composition of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Effects of large native herbivores on other animals

Effects of red deer exclusion on the corticolous and terricolous cryptogam community of Atlantic woodland

Efficacy of Olfactory Repellents on the Aversive Behaviour of Captive Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Based on Field Experiments in Scotland

Emergence of cooperative behaviours in the management of mobile ecological resources

Environmental and Strategic Uncertainty in Common Property Management: The Case of Scottish Red Deer

Environmental determinants of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in Scotland

Escalating ecological impacts of deer in lowland woodland

Establishing trees without fences in Scotland

Estimating abundance of introduced Chinese Muntjac Muntiacus reevesi and native Roe deer Capreolus capreolus using portable thermal imaging

Estimating deer abundance from line transect surveys of dung: sika deer in southern Scotland

Estimating national trends and regional differences in red deer density on open-hill ground in Scotland: identifying the causes of change and consequences for upland habitats

Estimating red deer Cervus elaphus populations: an analysis of variation and cost-effectiveness of counting

Estimation of Fallow Deer (Dama dama) populations from faecal accumulation

Evidence that climate change has caused 'emergence' of tick-borne diseases in Europe

Evolution of population genetic structure of the British roe deer by natural and anthropogenic processes (Capreolus capreolus)

Exclusion of deer affects responses of birds to woodland regeneration in winter and summer

Exmoor's other deer: current status of Fallow, Sika, Roe and Muntjac within Exmoor National Park and surrounding areas

Factors affecting forage intake by range ruminants: a review.

Factors Affecting Severity of Deer Browsing Damage Within Coppiced Woodlands in the South of England

Factors influencing browsing by fallow deer Dama dama in young broad-leaved plantations

Field evidence that roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are a natural host for Ehrlichia phagocytophila

Fifteen years of urban deer management: The Fontenelle Forest experience

Foraging behaviour of sheep and red deer within natural heather/grass mosaics

Foraging by roe deer in agricultural areas and impact on arable crops

Forest restoration and browsing impact by roe deer

Framework for assessing the susceptibility of management areas to deer impacts

Geographical variation in the density of grazing mammals on montane sites in the Highlands of Scotland

Getting the biggest birch for the bang: restoring and expanding upland birchwoods in the Scottish Highlands by managing red deer

Global climate change and phenotypic variation among red deer cohorts

Habitat monitoring in the wider countryside: A case study on the pursuit of innovation in red deer management

Habitat selection by sympatric muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a lowland commercial pine forest

Habitat usage by red (cervus-elaphus) and roe (capreolus-capreolus) deer in a Scottish sitka spruce plantation

Habitat use by Red deer Cervus elaphus L. and hill sheep in the West Highlands

Heat exchanges and energy balances of grazing animals

Heather utilisation along paths by red deer and sheep in a natural heather/grass mosaic

Herbivore impact assessment of the Torridon Forest SSSI

Herbivore impact on grassland plant diversity

How browsing by red deer impacts on litter decomposition in a native regenerating woodland in the Highlands of Scotland

How dear are deer volunteers: the efficiency of monitoring deer using teams of volunteers to conduct pellet group counts

How does climate change influence demographic processes of widespread species

How Many Deer? A guide to estimating deer population size

Identifying threshold densities for wild deer in the UK above which negative impacts may occur

Impact of deer in lowland Britain on agriculture, forestry and conservation habitats

Impact of herbivory by red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) on patterns and processes in subalpine grasslands in the Swiss National Park

Impact of muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) at Monks Wood National Nature Reserve, Cambridgeshire, eastern England

Impact of Muntjac Deer Muntiacus-Reevesi on Egg-Laying Sites of the White Admiral Butterfly Ladoga-Camilla in A Cambridgeshire Wood

Impact of red deer on a Scots pine plantation after removal of deer fencing

Impact of roe deer Capreolus capreolus browsing on understorey vegetation in small farm woodlands

Impacts of deer herbivory on ground vegetation at Wytham Woods, central England

Impacts of deer herbivory on ground vegetation at Wytham Woods, central England

Impacts of livestock in regenerating upland birch woodlands in Scotland

Impacts of wild ungulates on vegetation: costs and benefits

Impacts of woodland deer on small mammal ecology

Importance of climatological downscaling and plant phenology for red deer in heterogeneous landscapes

Incisor arcade structure and diet selection in ruminants

Indicators of ecological change: new tools for managing populations of large herbivores

Influence of landscape factors on density of suburban white-tailed deer

Influences of deer browsing, coppice history, and standard trees on the growth and development of vegetation structure in coppiced woods in lowland England

Interactions between forests and herbivores: the role of controlled grazing experiments

Introgression of exotic Cervus (nippon and canadensis) into red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations in Scotland and the English Lake District

Landscape features affect gene flow of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Landscape-scale vegetation patterns influence small-scale grazing impacts

Leader browsing by red and roe deer on young sitka spruce trees in western Scotland .1. Damage rates and the influence of habitat factors

Leader Browsing by Red and Roe Deer on Young Sitka Spruce Trees in Western Scotland .2. Effects on Growth and Tree Form

Liability of saplings to browsing on a red deer range in the Scottish Highlands

Life cycle assessment of Scottish wild venison

Long term density dependent changes in habitat selection in red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Long term effects of deer browsing and trampling on the vegetation of peatlands

Long-term change and implications for the management of woodpastures: experience over 40 years from Denny Wood, New Forest

Long-term effects of leader browsing by deer on the growth of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)

Mammalian herbivores as potential seed dispersal vectors in ancient woodland fragments

Management of deer in woodlands - literature review of decision making and report on decision modelling workshop

Management of deer in woodlands - literature reviews of woodland design, and techniques for assessing populations and damage

Management proposals for bilberry in Scots pine woodland

Marking fences to reduce bird collisions in woodlands

Marking of deer fences to reduce frequency of collisions by woodland grouse

Maximizing energy retention in grazing ruminants

Mechanisms that result in large herbivore grazing distribution patterns.

Modelling large-scale relationships between changes in woodland deer and bird populations

Modelling the cost of roe deer browsing damage to forestry

Modelling the effects of recent changes in climate, host density and acaricide treatments on population dynamics of Ixodes ricinus in the UK

Monitoring the density of a roe deer Capreolus capreolus population subjected to heavy hunting pressure

Monitoring woodland deer populations in the UK: an imprecise science

Nationwide trophic cascades: changes in avian community structure driven by ungulates

Native deer - red and roe. Version 1.0

Natural shelter for red deer (Cervus-Elaphus) in a Scottish glen

Patterns of Habitat Use and Activity in British Populations of Sika Deer of Contrasting Environments

Performance and population-dynamics in relation to management of red deer Cervus-Elaphus at Glenfeshie, Inverness-Shire, Scotland

Plant traits, browsing and grazing herbivores, and vegetation dynamics

Population substructure, local density, and calf winter survival in red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Population-dynamics of red deer (Cervus-Elaphus L) in Scottish commercial forests

Predation on Ground-Nesting Seabirds by Island Populations of Red Deer Cervus-Elaphus and Sheep Ovis

Predicting spatial variation in heather utilization by sheep and red deer within heather/grass mosaics

Proceedings of the Future for Deer Conference, 28 & 29 March 2003

Progress in predictive management of deer populations in British woodlands

Quantifying the grazing impacts associated with different herbivores

Recent declines in populations of woodland birds in Britain: a review of possible causes

Red and sika deer in the British Isles, current management issues and management policy

Red deer and woodland regeneration in the Cairngorms

Red deer calf tagging programmes in Scotland-an analysis

Red deer Cervus elephus vigilance behaviour differs with habitat and type of human disturbance

Red deer exclusion and saxicolous cryptogam community structure

Red deer management and vegetation on the Isle of Rum

Red deer on Rum a 20-year study of the ecological consequences of changes to male and female numbers

Red deer research on the Isle of Rum NNR management implication

Reduced sheep grazing and biodiversity: a novel approach to selecting and measuring biodiversity indicators

Regeneration failure in Atlantic oakwoods: the roles of ungulate grazing and invertebrates

Regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in a natural pinewood in NE Scotland following reduction in grazing by Cervus elaphus

Regeneration of Salix arbuscula and Salix lapponum within a large mammal exclosure: The impacts of microsite and herbivory

Resource Partitioning by Ungulates on the Isle-Of-Rhum

Responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) to regular disturbance by hill walkers

Responses of woodland birds to increasing numbers of deer: a review of evidence and mechanisms

Risk factors in habitats of the tick Ixodes ricinus influencing human exposure to Ehrlichia phagocytophila bacteria

Roe deer and methods of control in forests of south Scotland

Roe deer Capreolus capreolus behaviour affects density estimates from distance sampling surveys

Room for nature? Conservation management of the Isle of Rum, UK and prospects for large protected areas in Europe

Seasonal habitat use and browsing by deer in Caledonian pinewoods

Seed dispersal in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) dung and its potential importance for vegetation dynamics in subalpine grasslands

Seeing the forest for the deer: Do reductions in deer-disturbance lead to forest recovery?

Sex differences in emigration and mortality affect optimal management of deer populations

Sex differences in the consequences of maternal loss in a long-lived mammal, the red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Shared appreciation of woodland landscapes by land management professionals and lay people: An exploration through field-based interactive photo-elicitation

Sika deer distribution and habitat selection: the influence of the availability and distribution of food, cover, and threats

Sika deer in Scotland: Density, population size, habitat use and fertility: Some comparisons with red deer

Six years after the fences came down: Minimal deer damage to commercial forestry at Glenfinnan

Slow responses of ecosystems to reductions in deer (Cervidae) populations and strategies for achieving recovery

Spatial and temporal patterns of heather use by sheep and red deer

Studies in the Grazing of Heather Moorland in Northeast Scotland .4. Seed Dispersal and Plant Establishment in Dung

Survey of herbivore impacts on upland, peatland and woodland designated features in the Strathglass Complex Special Area of Conservation

Sympatric Populations of Muntjac (Muntiacus-Reevesi) and Roe Deer (Capreolus-Capreolus) - A Comparative-Analysis of Their Ranging Behavior, Social-Organization and Activity

Temporal and spatial development of red deer harvesting in Europe: biological and cultural factors

The concept of overgrazing and its role in management of large herbivores

The disappearance of muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) pellet groups in a pine forest of lowland England

The dispersal of vascular plants in a forest mosaic by a guild of mammalian herbivores

The distribution of excreta on New Forest grassland used by cattle, ponies and deer

The Economic Implications of Deer Damage - A review of current evidence

The effect of deer culling on tree regeneration on Scaniport Estate, Inverness-shire: A study by the Deer Commission for Scotland

The effect of deer Management on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus in Scotland

The effect of heather fragmentation and mixed grazing on the diet of sheep Ovis aries and red deer Cervus elaphus

The effect of plant competition and simulated summer browsing by deer on tree regeneration

The effects of deer browsing on woodland structure and songbirds in lowland Britain

The effects of mammalian herbivores on natural regeneration of upland, native woodland

The effects of varying deer density on natural regeneration in woodlands in lowland Britain

The extent and condition of heather on moorland in the uplands of England and Wales

The growth, reproduction and mortality of an enclosed population of red deer (Cervus-Elaphus) in northwest England

The health of wild red and sika deer in Scotland: An analysis of key endoparasites and recommendations for monitoring disease